Appendix B. Common Misapplications of Statistics

This appendix explains the mistakes that frequently appear in statistical reports. It also summarizes an appropriate alternative to the unacceptable practice. This information can help regulators, consultants, and stakeholders better understand how to apply statistics to groundwater data sets. The problems and errors below can occur during planning, implementation, or both (as noted for each).

B.1 Statistical Error and Resolution

B.2 References

DOD (Department of Defense). 2013. Quality Systems Manual (QSM) for Environmental Laboratories Based on ISO/IEC 17025:2005(E) and The NELAC Institute (TNI) Standards. Volume 1, (September 2009) DOD Quality System Manual Version 5.0.

Rong, Y. 2011. "Statistical Methods and Pitfalls in Environmental Data Analysis." Practical Environmental Statistics and Data Analysis 10:243-258.

United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACE). 1998. "Environmental Quality, Technical Project Planning (TPP) Process." EM 200-1-2. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army.

Publication Date: December 2013

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